The Care Manual | Urushi Lacquerware

At times with beautiful dishware comes the feeling of not wanting to use them! We’ve experienced this firsthand over the years but with the help of the artisan’s who have given us pointers on how to care for their handmade works in a way that brings out the best quality of the materials, we’ve overcome this impediment. Nowadays, we can safely say that we’ve grown from admirers to proud users of all the handicrafts we bring home. With this new Journal series, we hope to instill a bit more confidence in anyone who is hesitating to break in their pieces. After all, the only way to ruin a piece, is to not use and enjoy them.

Our first care guide is on urushi lacquerware. Traditional urushi lacquerware is made from the sap drawn from the trunk of an urushi tree. There is none better then Ryuji Mitani – the king of crossing limits between art and objects for everyday use – to give us his urushi daily care tips. Luckily caring for urushi is much simpler than we imagined. Here are instructions adapted from Ryuji Mitani’s notes during our exhibition with him.

1. If non-oily foods were used in the piece, rinse the piece under lukewarm water.

2. If there are oily areas, instead of solely lukewarm water, use a mild dish detergent and soft sponge to gently clean the piece. Rinse away all soap residue. Do not use metallic scrubbing pads, as they will cause the urushi to scratch and eventually peel.

3. After rinsing, fully dry the piece with a soft cloth. Leave the piece out to dry on a dish rack overnight before storing.

4. Store the piece on a shelf or in a cabinet with good airflow.

Additional Notes:

Avoid soaking urushi pieces in water for prolonged periods.
– Leaving urushi wares in direct sunlight for an extended time may cause discoloration.
– Urushi tableware will become less glossy and more matte as time goes by, this is expected and will give the piece a rich texture.
– It is not recommended to place in microwave.
– Urushi wares are not dishwasher safe as this could cause dents in the wood.
– Drastic temperature changes may cause the wood to warp therefore we do not recommend placing in the refridgerator.

The ‘White Urushi Rimmed Bowl’ pictured in this guide can be found here.


Apple Crumble | Recipe

It’s the perfect time of year to make an Apple Crumble. This family recipe by Momoko and Tetsuya Otani was made into recipe cards to share with guests during our exhibition with the potter couple. Here’s an online version in time for the holidays. Bake it in a Medium Clay Baking Pan and serve in a Blue Lotus Dish with ice cream for a quick and easy holiday dinner dessert!


– 5 small apples peeled, cored and sliced about 1 inch thick
– 2 tablespoons butter
– 3 tablespoons sugar
– ½ a lemon’s juice
– 2 tablespoons water
– cinnamon
– ½ cup walnuts cut into small chunks

– 1 cup all purpose flour
– ½ cup sugar
– 3 ½ oz butter cut into small cubes (about ½ inch wide)


1. Mix flour and sugar in a mixer, then add butter. Blend just until the mixture comes together, until it has a crumbly texture. Note: Crumble can be made in advance and chilled in the refridgerator.
2. Preheat the oven to 190 °C / 375 °F.

3. Melt butter in a pan, add apples and coat the fruit with butter. Add water and sugar to the pan and cook over low to medium heat for about 10 minutes until the apples become soft.

4. When the apples are baked, turn off heat and sprinkle cinnamon over the top. Mix.
5. Cover the apples with the crumble mixture, then sprinkle walnuts on top.

6. Bake for about 25 minutes until the crisp topping becomes golden and the apples are bubbling in the pan.
7. Serve warm with ice cream on top.



Ryuji Mitani | Exhibition Playlist


We are pleased to present the curated mix by Pablo Luis that played during the opening reception of our Ryuji Mitani exhibition, Blurring Boundaries. The full-length version is available to listen to above and can be downloaded here.


Blurring Boundaries | Ryuji Mitani Exhibition Recap

Last month was the month of Ryuji Mitani! Almost everything sold out at the exhibition but there is a small selection of items that are currently going online. It’s a bitter sweet feeling for us to hand off these rare pieces that sold but its given rise to an unprecedented amount of documentation from the team. Our favorite images is a 35mm series that Ingmar Chen took around the store during the installation and opening, a vintage feel fitting for Mitani-san’s personal style. Here they are mixed in with images from our adventures with Mitani-san in upstate NY.

We designed low display tables for this exhibition to showcase Mitani-san’s collection from a low vantage point. The beauty in his works lies in the urushi lacquering within the pieces and we wanted to showcase that feature from above.

The opening was an amazing night! So many people came out to see Ryuji Mitani. We were especially eager to welcome the avid collectors who flew from all over the world to attend. Junko-san, Mitani-san’s wife, flew in from Japan along with some of their close friends like Natsumi-san (wife of architect Yoshifumi Nakamura). Mitani-san brought cross-shaped cookies from his gallery in Matsumoto called ‘10cm’. The shape is the Japanese character for the number ten, a motif you can see in a lot of Mitani-san’s works like the Jū Cross Plate and cross trivet.

We had been dying to work with our neighbors Momofuku KO since the day we both simultaneously opened our doors for business on Extra Place and felt like this was the perfect occasion. They went above and beyond to provide bites for the opening. The menu included Uni Tart, Chicken Oyster, Arancini and Scallops served on Mitani-san’s large Serving Trays. The work of culinary and woodworking greats, though in different industries, married beautifully.

Thanks to an amazing group of people for helping make the show a big success. Great crew to kick off an exhibition week with!

Throughout the rest of the week we did some site seeing with the Mitanis in New York. Mitani-san also wanted to bring us to the Hancock Shaker Village Museum in Massachusetts as he fondly remembered his experience there over a decade ago when he went with Yoshifumi Nakamura. We packed a car and headed North with the Mitanis along with Aya, her husband Atsushi Miwa, and Natsumi-san.

We could see why Mitani-san liked the museum. The Hancock Shaker Village is utopia for craft lovers. The grounds of this particular Shaker settlement, that dates back to the late 1700s, is incredibly well maintained, there are original Shaker craft items abound, and many are available to touch and use. They also have demonstrations of the machinery and farming tools that you can try your hand at.

Visiting the Hancock Shaker Village became a catalyst to take a trip to Hudson for antique shopping. We met up with Matthew Johnson who recently moved to Hudson with his wife, interior designer Amy Row, and had a lovely family din at Rivertown Lodge where we were staying. It was a nice chance to reminisce on the making of the exhibition video Matt created.

When we were back in the city, Mitani-san spent much of his time at the exhibition, giving visitors the opportunity to put a face to the work, an extra special experience for people bringing pieces home with them because Mitani-san has stories about all the pieces he makes.

Every exhibition we organize a collaboration piece with the artisan or designer. In commemoration of our Blurring Boundaries exhibition, we worked with Ryuji Mitani to create a piece that blends both cultures and traditions – American sundaes and traditional Japanese craftsmanship. The goal was to produce the ultimate ice cream cup! Which is what we effectively tried to do by means of a perfectly round bowl that fits comfortably in the hand, signature white urushi lacquer finish and footed circular stand. Not visible in the photos is the best part, which is the beautiful brush strokes at the bottom of the bowl much like the marks of the White Urushi Rimmed Bowl. We love the idea of eating your way to the bottom of a piece to reveal a beautiful surprise. Unfortunately, we sold out out of the ice cream cup in a day but the good news, for those patient enough, is that Ryuji Mitani is making a limited amount for 2018!

The night before they left back to Japan we gave Mitani-san a vinyl record that we had made him as a souvenir with the help of Pablo Luis. Pablo curated the mix for the exhibition opening, a continuing tradition that goes back to our very first exhibition at the store. The full-length mix that played at the opening reception is available here.

We’ve had the opportunity to spend quality time with Ryuji Mitani, we’ve learned his language with wood and we have memories that will carry on for a lifetime but we couldn’t have pulled off this particular exhibition without the help of a lot of people coming together to make it happen. Huge thank you to Ryuji Mitani, Junko Mitani, Aya Nihei, John Medley, Armando Rafael Moutela, Matthew Johnson, Pablo Luis, Ingmar Chen, Ainsley Moy, Nau Kim, Riza Arrieta, Faraday Okoro, Sujin Lee and the team at Momofuku KO. 


Blurring Boundaries | Video

Made on the occasion of Blurring Boundaries, an exhibition of wooden tableware by Ryuji Mitani at Nalata Nalata – October 20-29, 2017.

A selection of works from Ryuji Mitani’s extensive collection is highlighted in this video to reflect the attributes of each handmade piece. The video draws from the artisan’s exhibition statement on Blurring Boundaries as it relates to the color white and his memories of the snowy landscapes of Fukui, his birthplace.

Videography and Production: Matthew Johnson


Blurring Boundaries | Exhibition Statement



In this Journal entry, we present Part II of a two part guest series by Ryuji Mitani. View Part I here.

As we eagerly anticipate our upcoming exhibition, Blurring Boundaries, we continue to offer insights into the ideas that have shaped Ryuji Mitani’s prominent career. Known as a visionary for his introduction of the color white in urushi lacquer wood wares, Ryuji Mitani has paved the way for a new outlook on traditional woodcrafts. He has lead organizations and written multiple books that propel a movement called Seikatsu Kougei. As a result he has inspired an entire generation of artisans in his pursuits of blurring established boundaries in his field.


The entry below was translated from Japanese to English.


I handle wood and urushi lacquer every day. Japanese urushi ware has traditionally been made in either a deep red or black color. Red urushi is usually made with cinnabar or iron oxide. Because of the high cost of cinnabar, a vivid color that expresses nobility, it has historically been applied to special items used for celebratory occasions. On the other hand, most aspects of our daily life are informal and special occasions to use formal tableware are few and far between. It’s almost innate to use red urushi wares less often. When I thought about the color of tableware that was ideal for our everyday lives, the color white came to mind.

Since I started making urushi wares, I’ve always felt uncomfortable with traditional Japanese styles like the red urushi I’ve mentioned, and I’ve never been able to integrate it into my work. Considering I belonged to the field of woodworking, which differs from the field of urushi, and because I was not a professional urushi artisan, I was afforded the liberty to select white as my color of choice. Going against the standards that professional artisans established without questioning my actions was privilege for an amateur like me at the time.

White is an essential color in my opinion. I realized that white, which is seen in white shirts, white walls, and white tableware like ceramics or kobiki glaze, are my favorite. My memory of the color white dates back to when I lived in my birthplace, Fukui, the snowy prefecture in the Hokuriku district. The wall of white snow cover that once reached the second floor of my house was impressive and unforgettable. Because I placed priority on finding my identity as an artisan over following established Japanese ways, I discovered a new world of white urushi.


Jukō Murata, known as the founder of Japanese wabi tea, noted the importance of blurring boundaries between the Japanese and Chinese culture. He established an original wabi-cha tea style from the method of blending the two. He united the tea culture of China with the Zen philosophy of Japan to create a unique new Japanese tea tradition. Similarly many things currently exist in Japan that are the result of blurring boundaries between Japanese and Western cultures.

The modernization of Japan started over 150 years ago as a result of Western influence. Our life in Japan is not only the result of such modernization, but also the new Japanese-like style that differs from purely Western style. It’s inaccurate to say that modern Japanese architecture, fashion, music, movie, manga, animation, food and more are all Western style influenced. Instead, It seems like we’ve been slightly converting them into our preferred modern way of living, while simultaneously accepting Western habits.

Japanese home cooking has a wide variety of cuisine such as Japanese, Western, Chinese, and more. Since we cook all kinds of meals every day, it’s almost impossible to prepare tableware in each style for each dish. Versatile tableware with undefined functions that can be used for all kinds of meals is particularly appreciated. Unlike the old days, our homes and clothes are almost entirely Western, but old living customs still remain like taking off our shoes before entering a house, for example – a habit derived from our desire to live clean. While we’re adopting Western styles we are also converting our way of living into what we prefer. I think this modern Japanese way of life is being well received in the US, and people are beginning to appreciate it.

I hope many can experience Japanese lifestyle from this exhibition while finding the joy and beauty of our everyday lives.


Works by Ryuji Mitani featured in these images will be available during the exhibition.
Photography by Armando Rafael Moutela.


What is Seikatsu Kogei?



Seikatsu Kogei is a Japanese term that has become part of our lexicon ever since we began working with some of the people at the forefront of this movement, Ryuji Mitani, Kazumi Tsuji and Masanobu Ando, to name a few. The term Seikatsu Kogei translates to “Life Industrial Arts.” It represents a new standard in household crafts that phased in near the end of Mingei, the Japanese folk art movement. We are pleased to present a guest entry written by Ryuji Mitani in which he describes what the term means to him.


The entry below was translated from Japanese to English.


There was a moment when I looked around at my surroundings and noticed that the city where I lived and the houses where people led their lives had become full of stuff. Stuff was overflowing everywhere. When I became aware of that, I began to think that we should change our attitude towards consumerism. I saw that there were limitations of happiness in which material objects provided. Since that realization I’ve put a sudden halt to crafting unconsciously. Creating and refraining – these opposite powers began to evolve in me. “Is this right?” I began to ask my hands and myself.

I realized that the perspective I had of my own work was the same as what the users were having. Someone once asked me, “…why don’t artisans create more ordinary everyday items?” and this question still deeply remains with me. This person resolved that it was the self-satisfying, egotistical satisfaction of creating that some artisans pursued. They suggested that instead we should create objects that we personally wanted to use in our daily lives, instead of crafting for self-expression. It is true that the artisans at that time pursued originality and uniqueness. Many artisans tried to explain their works with abstract, difficult words to understand. Those who understood were a tiny percentage. Artisans like this shifted more towards specific genres of craft, eventually closing off and staying within their communities. In a sense, they had strayed far from quotidian life.

Meanwhile, other artisans had a re-discovery. A new perspective of people who live and eat by their own hands, gave rise to a newfound reason for making, and a “craft” based on the realities of ordinary people. We found new value in “craft” and we have been paving a new road for the evolution of “craft” for the past 30 years.

We prefer to be simple rather than special, to be genuine rather than pretentious. We believe in choosing form carefully to make our work meaningful, as if selecting one line from a rough sketch makes the line stronger. For us, being simple has power.


The World of Ryuji Mitani

With my seat at the table of a quaint soba restaurant in Japan directly at the opposite end of the acclaimed Ryuji Mitani, I wondered, how did I get here? I could tell by glancing at Steve that he was thinking the same thing. Now miles away back in New York, staring at a massive album of images from this visit on my computer, I wonder, how do I even come close to describing one of our most enlightening artisan visits?

As long time fans of Ryuji Mitani’s wooden tableware, spending the whole day with him let alone being invited to his studio and home, was a dream come true. Mitani-san epitomizes the way in which we strive to live. Surrounded by space, and emptiness, the only objects that seem to qualify in his world are the ones that are at once beautiful and essential. Though Mitani-san’s collection of work is diverse, the same principles he lives by are exemplified in every piece he creates.

Our visit with the artisan is partitioned between stops at his gallery 10cm, his studios and his home in Matsumoto, Japan. With our upcoming exhibition with Mitani-san, Blurring Boundaries, on the horizon, we hope this Journal entry gives insight into the life and work of one of the most well respected artisans of our time.

In 2011, Mitani-san transformed an old tobacco shop into a gallery. He found an antique metal stencil that read “10cm”, and aptly named the small space after it.

10cm gallery is both a place to showcase his own works as well as the works of others but more importantly, a place to gather objects from artists and designers who have a similar approach to “crafts”.

Mitani-san’s tableware is rare to come by outside of Japan but even rarer still is a collection of wooden brooches that we were surprised to see at 10cm occupying a small shelf. The brooches are actually the first objects he made when he began woodworking at a young age before he went on to focus on tableware, eventually becoming a leader of the Seikatsu Kogei movement in Japan. We’ve mentioned Seikatsu Kogei in the past but are still trying to pinpoint a clear English definition with the help of others in this movement such as Ryuji Mitani, Kazumi Tsuji and Masanobu Ando. The direct translation, “life industrial arts”, has always seemed “cold” in our opinion. Until we find a better translation, our best description of Seikatsu Kogei is essentially the pursuit of creating an object with artistic value that is also useful for daily life.

Mitani-san gave us two yellow chick brooches that we treasure so immensely we asked him to bring some to the exhibition in October. There will only be a small handful so consider yourself lucky if you can get your hands on one!

Mitani-san’s wife Junko-san joined us at 10cm as well and from there we all took off for a lunch break at a soba restaurant called Sanjiro.

We were greeted at Sanjiro by a graceful older woman. It was an establishment for soba purists, in respect to taste and atmosphere. Kintsugi cups, a well-worn communal table and antique sculptures – the place was affected by time which is what we ultimately found the most attractive.

After lunch we explore Mitani-san’s studios – one small building is a woodshop where he carves and turns wood and another one nearby is a space where he lacquers.

At the woodshop we notice small artifacts and an incredibly large array of carving tools hanging on the walls – each one serving to transform solid blocks of wood into functional shapes.

The small handheld tools are used for chiseling small grooves, a signature of Mitani-san’s work that gives them an appearance like that of a gem reflecting light off multi-dimensional facets.

Another signature of Mitani-san’s is his unique way of applying lacquer, otherwise known as urushi in Japanese. Not sure if it is Mitani-san’s naturally calm demeanor but he approaches the technique almost as if it is a medical surgery he’s done a hundred times. He puts on a canvas work jacket, lays all his tools on a clean empty table and starts preparing the materials. A special lacquer mixture is carefully sifted through a contraption he made to remove impurities. Once the mixture is completely smooth, the procedure begins.

At the end of the day, he places all the pieces neatly into a cabinet allowing them to fully dry before the application of another layer can occur. He continues this process several times until the piece is complete. The resulting layers of lacquer protect and seal without entirely covering the wood grain.

We’ve seen so many types of lacquer ware that we now notice the nuances. Mitani-san’s painter-like approach to lacquering, his technique of underpainting, overpainting, and artful semi-transparent strokes gives it a uniqueness that other lacquer ware lacks.

After the studio tour Mitani-san drives us a short distance down a hilly path to his home. Not to our surprise, it has the same aesthetic sensibilities that define his gallery and studios. The difference is that Mitani-san’s home has deliberate places for contemplation – a custom-made fireplace, a study stocked with books, a living room with chairs facing a view of nature and a large dining room table to congregate over tea. His home is clearly a place of rest.

Observing all the corners of Mitani-san’s home, my main takeaway was that he has crafted a world for himself that is simply perfect. The attention to detail is evident across every room, nothing looks expendable, and everything has a purpose. Even the places where his wood tableware collection is stored are not collecting dust. They are stacked and ready to be grabbed for preparing meals, tossing salads, and serving dinner. We could identify the effects of usage on the pieces. They tell a story and give them soul. Fading, softened edges, and overlapping scratches that wood naturally gains with each passing day are all aspects that remind us of Mitani-san’s mission to create functional objects that can be used for many generations.

Throughout our perfect day with Ryuji Mitani, I kept wondering what values and rules govern his life that allow him to make it look so easy? Now that time has passed and the term Seikatsu Kogei is on our minds, it all makes sense. Our time spent with the artisan proved that he whole-heartedly creates and lives by this concept. We realize now that Mitani-san is so beloved because he stands for the simple idea of elevating the everyday. From a large urushi wooden bowl to a small cherry wood teaspoon, each object he creates aims to link crafts to a better quality of life. Maybe that’s what makes Ryuji Mitani’s wonderful world look so effortless.

Photos by Armando Rafael Moutela


Joining Forces with Aya Nihei

The name Aya Nihei has been making its way more and more into our features ever since this talented writer started contributing for us. We’ve briefly mentioned her in our past Journal entries but since we’ve begun to carry her ‘Best of Brooklyn’ series, we wanted to do a proper introduction to showcase the face behind these guidebooks and also the face behind a lot of the work that goes on behind Nalata Nalata.

Aya is originally from Japan but currently lives in Brooklyn with her husband, Miwa, and their cat, Michiko. We’ve gotten to know her through the development of a series of random encounters, and now find ourselves in a relationship forged upon a mutual love of handicrafts. It’s not often we find someone who is more obsessed with collecting handmade objects as us. One look at Aya’s home serves as a sign that they exist!

Aya has all kinds of items made by artisans that we know and love like Tajika scissors, wood bowls by Ryuji Mitani (who we’ll be having an exhibiton with in October) and artwork by Keiko Yuasa (a painter based in Nagoya who is the wife of Tatsuya Yuasu, the graphic designer behind ‘Best of Brooklyn’).

In addition to having a wonderful eye for these pieces, Aya also has great stories to accompany them. Sitting on her windowsill is a white ceramic house that stands out amongst her collection. I wasn’t surprised when she said it is her favourite. She tells us that the “White House”, capitalized as if it has a personality, is made by Japanese potter Jissei Omine (大嶺實清) from Okinawa. It has special meaning because her and her husband bought it during a studio visit with the potter instead of buying an actual house somewhere in Japan. She explains, “That’s our house that we can live in mentally, not physically, and bring everywhere.”

Another meaningful collection of Aya’s is her series of number “5” objects. She says that the Ni in her last name, Nihei, means 2. The Mi in her husband’s last name, Miwa, means 3. When they got married, it symbolized 2+3, which equals 5, so they married on May 5th and had their wedding ceremony on October 5th. Since then, they’ve been collecting “5” things, their lucky number, like the Mitsuhiro Konishi Number 5 Spoon!

Each object in Aya’s home expresses her and her husband’s extraordinary life. Seemingly placed with ease, they have a presence that demonstrates all the wonder that exists in the world.

We are so grateful for the friendship we’ve gained with Aya and can’t wait to have her all over our site in due time as we prepare for an exciting new series with her! Keep up to date with all of her latest projects like new books and cat articles on her site here.


OTANI’S | Momoko and Tetsuya Otani Exhibition Recap

Momoko and Tetsuya Otani came and left the city in what feels like a blink of an eye, leaving an impression on New York not to be forgotten. Our OTANI’S exhibition was a big success and our time with the potter couple and their daughters was one of the best.

Thank you to all who came to the week’s events. Below is a collection of images that were taken during our one-week period with the Otani family. They include photos of everything from the exhibition opening to Tetsuya’s coffee demonstration.

The day before our exhibition openings usually entail late nights and lots of action – packing, unpacking, transporting and help from many hands. It’s all hustle and bustle but well worth it when everything is ready to go the next morning. Calm in contrast and beautiful in a way where the collections speak for themselves.

The only thing left to do is to look over some last minute details. Momoko and Tetsuya and their daughters Hana, Fu and Midori dropped by in the morning to explain the different types of sake that we would be serving during the opening reception. They brought the sake all the way from their home in Shiga.

This metal pencil case Tetsuya pulled out is amazing! He’s had it since he was a child. It has scratches and dents, all signs of a well-used, well-loved item, the same type of wear that exists on his Peugeot coffee grinder that you’ll see later in this post.

We prepared recipe cards for our Nalata Nalata ‘Recipe Files’ – an Apple Crumble dessert Momoko and Tetsuya wanted to share. If you didn’t get a chance to get a hard copy, we’ll be posting it on the Journal soon.

Before opening the doors for the evening we took our requisite group photo outside the store on our favourite street in New York… Extra Place!

Guests had a chance to drink from Momoko and Tetsuya’s sake cups. Their styles of pottery are so different, it’s interesting to see who gravitates towards whose works. Momoko’s sake cups are stoneware and have a rougher texture whereas Tetsuya’s are smooth and feel sheer to the touch like paper.

We especially loved Momoko’s painted blue lotus series that were made for the exhibition. They combine beautifully with Tetsuya’s stark white pieces.

Another series we were fond of were the dinner plates Momoko and Tetsuya collaborated on as an exclusive series for the exhibition. We displayed them with Fish Cutlery by Yuichi Takemata who is a really close friend of Tetsuya’s.

The night was fun as always! When it was lights out at the end of the event we caught this heartwarming moment when the Otani family gathered as one unit, supporting each other as they overcame not just a busy day but also the effects of jet lag.

The following Sunday morning we rolled out of bed and headed to the store for a casual pour-over drip coffee demonstration by Tetsuya.

Tetsuya set up a roasting station outside the store on Extra Place and stirred the white beans with a custom made wooden spatula by Takashi Tomii (who is another close friend of the Otanis).

It was fascinating to see the beans slowly go from light to dark as Tetsuya stirred them in one of his baking pans. When the beans were finally fully roasted, the husks were fanned off leaving the most perfectly plump and fragrant coffee beans. Tetsuya then ground the beans in a Peugeot grinder he has had for years. Apparently it’s a model that the French car company released for a limited time awhile back. It’s a rare item that Tetsuya managed to get his hands on. We didn’t even know Peugeot made coffee-grinders, but now we want to track one down.

Thanks for the cookies on beautiful handmade plates, Momoko! Thanks for the good coffee, Tetsuya. Cool shirt, by the way.

We will definitely miss the Otani family as they head back to Japan to prep their daughters for the new school year. It was such a great exhibition we hope to have another with the family again soon, but until that time comes we continue to lust over the small amount of pieces we have left, enjoying them for all their handmade qualities.